Emotional injury to a child that results in an observable and material impairment in the child’s growth,
development, or psychological functioning.
Physical injury that results in substantial harm to the child. The law excludes physical punishment that does not result
Child sexual abuse is a physical violation of a child’s body through any sort of sexual contact or a
psychological violation of a child’s personal space through verbal or visual behavior.
Leaving of a child in a situation where the child would be exposed to a substantial risk of physical or mental harm, without
arranging for necessary care for the child. The law excludes failure to provide due to
financial need, unless relief has been offered and refused.